What is the CBC Test?
A complete blood count (CBC) is a set of medical laboratory tests that provide information about the cells in a person’s blood. The CBC is often carried out as part of a medical assessment and can be used to monitor health or diagnose diseases.
A complete blood count (CBC) is a blood test used to evaluate your overall health and detect a wide range of disorders, including anemia, infection and leukemia. A complete blood count test measures several components and features of your blood, including:
- Red blood cells, which carry oxygen
- White blood cells, which fight infection
- Hemoglobin, the oxygen-carrying protein in red blood cells
- Haematocrit, the proportion of red blood cells to the fluid component, or plasma, in your blood
- Platelets, which help with blood clotting
Abnormal increases or decreases in cell counts as revealed in a complete blood count may indicate that you have an underlying medical condition that calls for further evaluation.
2) Why do you need to get a CBC test done?
A complete blood count is a common blood test that’s done for a variety of reasons:
- For an overall health review: Your doctor may recommend a complete blood count as part of a routine medical examination to monitor your general health and to screen for a variety of disorders, such as anemia or leukemia.
- To diagnose a medical condition: Your doctor may suggest a complete blood count if you’re experiencing weakness, fatigue, fever, inflammation, bruising or bleeding. A complete blood count may help diagnose the cause of these signs and symptoms. If your doctor suspects you have an infection, the test can also help confirm that diagnosis.
- To monitor a medical condition: If you’ve been diagnosed with a blood disorder that affects blood cell counts, your doctor may use complete blood counts to monitor your condition.
- To monitor medical treatment: A complete blood count may be used to monitor your health if you’re taking medications that may affect blood cell counts.
3) What is being tested in a CBC test?
The complete blood count (CBC) is a group of tests that evaluate the cells that circulate in blood. Blood cells are produced and mature primarily in the bone marrow and, under normal circumstances, are released into the bloodstream as needed. The three types of cells evaluated by the CBC include:
Red Blood Cells
Red blood cells, are medically called erythrocytes. They are produced in the bone marrow and released into the bloodstream when they mature and they contain hemoglobin. The typical lifespan of an RBC is 120 days due to which the bone marrow is responsible producing new RBCs to replace those that age and degrade or are lost through bleeding. If this isn’t happening, your body will give you warning signs, as in, significant bleeding.
An example of a common condition affecting RBCs is anemia, which results from low red blood cell counts and low hemoglobin. Various diseases can lead to anemia, so additional tests are often needed to determine the cause.
White Blood Cells
White blood cells, also called leukocytes, are cells that exist in the blood, the lymphatic system, and tissues and are an important part of the body’s natural defense (immune) system
WBCs are present in the blood at relatively stable numbers. However, these numbers may temporarily shift higher or lower depending on what is going on in the body. In certain diseases, such as leukemia, abnormal (immature or mature) white cells may rapidly multiply. Under such circumstances, tests are to be done without fail.
Platelets, also called thrombocytes, are actually tiny cell fragments that circulate in blood and are essential for normal blood clotting. If you have a disease or condition that causes low platelets (thrombocytopenia) or dysfunction of platelets, you may be at an increased risk of excessive bleeding and bruising. An excess of platelets (thrombocytosis) can cause excessive clotting
4) What is included in a CBC?
A CBC is typically performed using an automated instrument that measures various parameters, including cell counts and the physical features of some of the cells. A standard CBC includes:
Red blood cell (RBC) tests:
- Red blood cell (RBC) count: A count of the actual number of red blood cells in your blood sample.
- Hemoglobin: Measures the total amount of the oxygen-carrying protein in the blood, responsible for the number of red blood cells in the blood.
- Hematocrit: Measures the percentage of your total blood volume that consists of red blood cells.
- Red blood cell indices provide information on the physical features of the RBCs:
- Mean corpuscular volume (MCV) is a measurement of the average size of your red blood cells.
- Mean corpuscular hemoglobin (MCH) is a calculated measurement of the average amount of hemoglobin inside your red blood cells.
- Mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (MCHC) is a calculated measurement of the average concentration of hemoglobin inside your red blood cells.
- Red cell distribution width (RDW) is a measurement of the variation in the size of your red blood cells.
White blood cell (WBC) tests:
- White blood cell (WBC) count : A count of the total number of white blood cells in your blood sample.
- White blood cell differential: The WBC differential identifies and counts the number of the five types of white blood cells present (neutrophils, lymphocytes, monocytes, eosinophils, and basophils). The individual count can be reported as an absolute count and/or as a percentage of total.
- The platelet count is the number of platelets in your blood sample.
- Mean platelet volume (MPV) may be reported with a CBC. It is a measurement of the average size of platelets.
- Platelet distribution width (PDW) may also be reported with a CBC. It reflects how uniform platelets are in size.
5.) When is it Required?
The CBC is a very common test. You may have a CBC performed when
- You have a routine health examination.
- When you are ill and have signs and symptoms that may be related to conditions that affect blood cells, that is, you have fatigue or weakness, or easy bruising or bleeding, an infection or inflammation.
- To monitor your condition when you have been diagnosed with a disease known to affect blood cells.
- To know if the treatment is working or not in case you are being treated for a blood-related disorder
- To keep a check on the drug treatments if you are undergoing chemotherapy which can affect bone marrow production of cells or are under some medications which can decrease WBC counts overall.
6) Why Delhi Health Labs?
When it comes to health, nobody wants to compromise. We demand the best facility and accurate treatment and results. We at Delhi Health Labs provide exactly the same for each and every customer who bestows their trust in us. We know you are looking for the best facilities at affordable rates and we strive each day to make it work just the way you want. Our test results and procedures are certified and can be totally trusted upon.
We aim at delivering elite services to our patients and we promise to not let you go unsatisfied. We provide services at your doorstep so you can forget about your cranky hospital trips all together. If you wish to have a hassle-free experience, you will choose us again and again. We perform everything required in a CBC test as per protocol and the results are delivered without delay. We have minimal prices for our tests, such that everybody can afford it. All of this makes us your first and last choice.